Analysis of food rates of students of the faculty of physical education

  • Authors: I.R. Tymofiichuk, L.H. Dotsiuk, S.B. Semenenko, L.D. Boreiko, N.Yu. Semenenko
  • UDC: 613.2:642.09]-057.87:64
  • DOI: 10.33273/2663-9726-2019-51-2-82-86
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I. Timofiichuk, L. Dotsiuk, S. Semenenko, L. Boreiko, N. Semenenko

Higher State Educational Establishment оf Ukraine “Bukovinian State Medical University”, Chernivtsi, Ukraine Yuriy Fedkovych Chernivitsi National University

ABSTRACT. It is well known that health depends on many factors: socio-economic and environmental, age and gender, heredity and lifestyle. One of the most important components of a healthy lifestyle is a healthy diet.

The popularity of fast food products containing a large variety of additives, dyes, modified components is increasing in students. Often, students eat extremely irregularly, having a snack on the go, on the go. Students of the Faculty of Physical Education, in addition to mental ones, also have considerable physical activity, which requires an increase in the energy value and quantity of trace elements of proteins and vitamin composition in the diet. Analysis of the nutritional components of students of the Faculty of Physical Education revealed a number of problems in the nutrition of students.

We set a goal to evaluate the nutrition of students in the Faculty of Physical Education.

Respondents' survey and survey methods were used. Calories and quality composition of diets were calculated by reference tables.

Analyzing the diets of the students of the Faculty of Physical Education, it was found that in their diets insufficient amount of foods with fiber, insufficient amount of low-fat meat, which slows muscle growth and reduces functionality. Insufficient consumption of vegetables and fruits does not satisfy the need for micro and macronutrients, vitamins

Key Words: food rations, rational nutrition, energy value of foods, vitamins.

Introduction. Food culture is an integral part of people’s general culture. One should have a clear idea about how much and what to eat in order not to harm own health. For his purpose, the general principles of well-minded nutrition should be followed. Well-minded nutrition is a physiologically complete diet of healthy people, taking into account their gender, age, nature of work. Such nutrition promotes normal body development, maintenance of health, high mental and physical capacity, resistance to harmful environmental factors, active longevity. The nutrition of student youth is an important component of their lives since students are a special population group, representing, to some extent, the future intellectual, professional and, therefore, an economic resource of any country [1,2].

Analysis of recent studies and publications. Nutrition provides the energy demands of the body. At the heart of rational nutrition, there is a balance between consumed and utilised energy.

Nutrition has a plastic function. Plastic substances, mainly proteins and carbohydrates, come with the food products. The demand in plastic substances is different and depends on the intensity of the processes of growth and development. For example, plastic demands are higher in childhood and during youth. Special demand for plastic substances arises in students of the faculties of physical education. In addition to considerable mental stress, they are physically stressed. In addition, given the specifics of these higher-educational institutions, many students are actively training, improving their skills, participate in competitions of different rank [3, 4].

Also with food, there is an intake of substances that are not produced in the body and are necessary for the processes of regulation of life processes. Such substances include essential amino acids, vitamins, trace and major nutrients.

It is difficult to overestimate the role of nutrition in training athletes. One of the important components of ensuring a high level of a functional status of athletes is a well-minded balanced diet. Diets that are recommended for athletes of different sports are tailored to the athlete’s training, the season of the year (in winter energy supply demands increase by 10%). The arrangement of living (with parents, in the residence halls, on a rented apartment) is of great importance as they directly influence the arrangement of the diet.

The diet of students who have significant physical activity should be as follows:

1. Meet energy consumption at this time point.

2. To be balanced, i.e. to contain all the necessary nutrients

3. It should contain products of both animal and plant origin.

4. It should be easily digested in the body.

Students of the faculty of physical education, who schedule training 2–3 times a week with a run of 10 km or more, impose increased demands on their body, and during 2–2.5 hours before training, they should eat easily digestible high-calorie diet, preferably carbohydrate, 20–30 min before the start of training, a glass of water should be consumed to prevent dehydration. After training, it is recommended to make up for the lost fluid with a glass of water and consume 50–100 g of carbohydrates to fill the “metabolic window” for the first 30 minutes. Delayed eating may cause the destruction of own muscles. During physical load, catabolic processes are activated, which is dangerous for own protein structures. Therefore, within one hour after training, it is required to take 30–50 g of protein, such as a piece of boiled chicken. Within the first hours after training, it is required to exclude fatty, smoked, spicy foods, as it overloads the liver. Those who go into track-and-field athletics and clock up 20 km or more should avoid products with gelatin because it blocks the action of methionine and promotes fatty degradation of hepatic cells [5].

Significant loads change the acid-base balance to acidity, which contributes to increased fatigue. Therefore, it is necessary to consume products with an alkaline reaction: fruits, vegetables, alkaline mineral water.

Physical activity accompanied by marked sweating removes calcium, potassium and sodium from the body. Lack of calcium and potassium can cause cramps in the muscles of lower legs and thighs. This should be considered by increasing the foods enriched with trace and major nutrients in the diet.

Consumption of low-fat protein foods is recommended for athletes. The food needs special thermal processing, frying should be avoided, with the preference of boiling and stewing. Salads should be seasoned with low-calorie seasoning. Instead of whole eggs, the yolk of which contains a lot of fats, egg white is preferred.

Carbohydrates need special attention in the diet. They are the main source of energy that is so important during excessive physical activity. However, the excess carbohydrates promotes fat deposition, which reduces the functionality of athletes [6].

One of the principles of well-minded nutrition is the supply of sufficient vitamins and minerals that provide high enzymatic activity. In case of physical load, it is advisable to eat 4–5 times a day, taking food in small portions for better digestion, especially proteins [2,4,6].

Objective of this work was to investigate features of regimen and composition of the nutrition of the students at the physical education faculty.

Materials and methods. Students of the second and third year of the Faculty of Physical Education of Yu. Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University aged 18 to 21 years participated in the study. Out of them: 28 girls and 36 boys. Questionnaire and survey of respondents were used as the methods. The caloric content and quality composition of the diets were calculated using reference tables [1,2,3]. Differentiated analysis of the questionnaire data was carried out taking into account the gender component. The data were statistically processed in Excel 2010 to obtain the mean and standard error for each parameter at a confidence level of significance of 0.05, accepted in biological and medical studies. The means of the studied parameters are shown in Tables 1, 2 and 3. Daily energy expenditure, caloric content and content of the main nutrients in the daily diet were analysed depending on the living conditions and training sessions. According to the survey, 27 people lived with their parents, that is, without changing their living conditions. Forty-two students lived in the residence halls, i.e. in new living conditions.

Results and their discussion. Food analysis have found that 82% of girls consumed meat (chicken, pork) daily, 18% did not, or consumed meat once a week. Among boys, 84% consumed meat daily. Dairy products (cheese, sour cream) were consumed by 83% of girls and 77% of boys. Insufficient amount of fibre in the diet (legumes, greens) raises concerns. The main sources of micro and major nutrients, vitamins — vegetables and fruits are included in the diet of 78% of girls and 65% of boys. The most commonly used products of plant origin are cabbage, tomatoes, apples, bananas, citrus fruits, as they are in an affordable price range.

The analysis of the food basket showed that the list of products that students consume most often lacked fish and seafood, resulting in polyunsaturated fatty acids deficiency. A lack of food rich in fibre adversely affects the functioning of the intestinal microbiota.

It should be noted that 65% of students continue to go in for sports actively. In the majority of cases (55%), the caloric content of the diets in both boys and girls did not compensate for energy expenditure and did not depend on the living conditions or the presence of training (Table 1, 2).

Analysis of essential nutrients showed that there is a significant deficiency in carbohydrates: girls consume 352 g of carbohydrates at the rate of 394 g, boys — 408 g at the rate of 478 g, while in weight units the amount of protein and fat almost complies with the normal rate [1]. The ratio of main nutrients in the diet at the recommended ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates — 1: 1: 4 (15: 30: 55%), in girls was 1: 0.8: 3.2, in boys — 1: 0.8 2.7.


Table 1

Daily caloric value and the ratio of main nutrients in the diet of female students (М ± m), n = 28

Note * — significance of parameters in terms of parameters in total girls group (p ≤ 0.05)


Table 2

Daily caloric value and the ratio of main nutrients in the diet of male students (М ± m), n = 36

Note * — significance of parameters in terms of parameters in total boys group (p ≤ 0.05)


A survey of respondents found that most students prefer 3-time meal. In 17%, there is a 2-time meal without breakfast. Athletes also have more regular meals (72.91%) than non-athlete students (63.81%). This is due to the established regime of the day, training of athletes, the need to eat at a certain time. 27.09% of athletes and 36.31% of non-athletes eat irregularly. Students involved in training pay more attention to diet, and their diet daily consisted of meat (89% of respondents), which is rated as a protein-fat diet. Analysis of the nutrition of students has shown that senior students (2nd- and 3rd-year) are trying to adhere hygienic guidelines for well-minded nutrition.

Upon analysis of the diet of the students at the physical education faculty, it was established that their diets contain insufficient amounts of products with fibre, insufficient amount of lean meat that slows down muscular building-up and reduces functional capabilities. Insufficient consumption of vegetables and fruits does not satisfy the need for micro and major nutrients, vitamins (Table 3).


Table 3

Content of vitamins A, B1, C and minerals in the daily diet


Conclusion. Survey among students has established the diet of the students at the physical education faculty contain insufficient amounts of products with fibre, insufficient amount of lean meat that slows down muscular building-up and reduces functional capabilities. Insufficient consumption of vegetables and fruits does not satisfy the need for micro and major nutrients and vitamins, especially for students who have intense physical activity.



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Надійшла до редакції 09.10 2019 р.