Environmental technologies in restoration of destabilized ecological systems of the conflict zone

  • Authors: A.H. Shapar, O.V. Mikheev, M.V. Velychko
  • UDC: 574.4:502.35:614.8.026.1
  • DOI: 10.33273/2663-9726-2019-51-2-78-81
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A. Shapar1, A. Mikheyev1, M. Velichko2

1 Institute for Nature Management Problems and Ecology of NAS of Ukraine, Dnepr, Ukraine
2 National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine; L.I. Medved's Research Center of Preventive Toxicology, Food and Chemical Safety, Ministry of Health, Ukraine (State Enterprise,) Kyiv, Ukraine

ABSTRACT. The state of normal human life, which is characterized by the general notion of «Health», includes a combination of indicators of physical, mental and social well-being, and, in turn, is determined by a whole set of factors. Among them, along with medical and biological, undoubtedly important role is played by environmental factors. The region of Eastern Ukraine, firstly — Donetsk and Lugansk regions, in this regard can't be recognized as prosperous. A significant degree of anthropogenic transformation of the natural environment of this industrially developed region, which was formed over decades, has increased considerably during the military actions of recent years [1, 2]. Accordingly, the need to restore constitutional order and ensure worth living conditions for Ukrainian citizens includes, along with political, economic and social vectors, the task of optimizing natural ecological systems.

It should be noted that the consequences of the impact of military actions on the natural environment in conflict zones, with all its specificity, have a number of similar features, for example, with man-made transformations that are noted in mining regions [3, 4]. These are, first of all, local and large-scale transformations of the landscape, disturbance of soil cover, partial or complete destruction of plant communities, impoverishment of fauna, and, as a result, the destabilization of ecosystems due to the violation of ecological relations that ensure their structural and functional organization and natural mechanisms of their self-regulation [5, 6].

In this context, the very urgent and demanded for the conflict zone is the implementation of various environmental technologies tested for solving similar problems in anthropogenically transformed territories. In particular, the scientific and practical developments of the Institute for Nature Management Problems and Ecology of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (INMPE of NAS of Ukraine, Dnipro) [7–10] have a considerable interest in the following main areas.

Key Words: Ecological destabilization, Ecological rehabilitation, Post-war territories, Environmental technologies, Ecological management, Landscape, Ecosystems.

Establishing of territorial systems of local landscape reserves on disturbed lands

The purpose of this development is the restoration and development of a natural reserve fund (NRF) for the conservation of biodiversity at the expense to disturbed lands. The main stages of the implementation of the proposal are:

– assess of promising nature protection objects on disturbed lands;

– working out of a regional program for the creation and development of NRF in the areas of the impact of hostilities;

– implementation of design, which includes land management, organization of the ecological monitoring system, zoning, planning of improvement and planting of greenery, a set of measures to intensify the restoration of ecosystems of disturbed lands.

The effect of introducing a proposal is to create the basis for the formation of connecting elements of the ecological network; satisfaction of social needs of citizens in recreational, tourist and educational services; saving money through the use of natural methods of rehabilitation of ecosystems.

Similar developments of the INMPE of NAS of Ukraine proved their effectiveness and were realized during the implementation of regional programs on disturbed land of mining enterprises of the Krivoy Rog Iron Ore and Nikopol Manganese Ore basins (2007–2014).

Technologies of raising the eco-security of areas affected by military actions using the methods of purposeful accelerated formation of antidust relief and secondary ecosystems

The purpose of the proposal is to apply methods of reducing the intensity of deflation from the surfaces of the transformed relief to increase the ecological security through technological changes in the shape of the relief and purposeful accelerated formation of the vegetation cover.

The technological schemes for the formation of antidust relief, areas of increased humidity and vegetation cover, the application of which allows to increase the ecological safety of disturbed territories by reducing of their dustiness, are offered.

Technologies of regeneration of ecosystems on disturbed lands using sediments of urban sewage

The aim of the proposal is to overcome desertification and loss of biodiversity as a consequence of the transformation of primary ecosystems with the utilization of waste. The implementation of the proposal can reduce the negative impact of mined land on the environment; to promote utilization of waste of the communal economy; return the disturbed land to use, taking into account the satisfaction of the social needs of the population.

Working out of the greening system of settlements of the conflict zone in accordance with the requirements of European standards

The purpose of the proposal is to improve the natural environment of settlements in the conflict zone and create favorable living conditions for citizens. It is proposed to create a greening system through vertical and roof gardening, the development of territories of green public landscapes (parks, boulevards etc.), house greening, increasing the area of the greenery of the city (including by reducing and reorganizing disturbed territories), reconstruction of forest plants in water protection zones of reservoirs, reclamation of disturbed landscapes.

Development of the remote monitoring system of the ecobiological status of the territory in the area of combat operations using pilotless aerial vehicles (PAV)

The purpose of the proposal is to develop a new methods of remote monitoring of the territory, which is aimed at determining the biological situation of the area of combat operations. The urgency of the work is the need to provide information on the biological situation of troops conducting hostilities. One of the components of the biological environment is vegetation. It is known that the vegetation state changes all the time in seasons of the year, and depending on climatic (drought, storm) and anthropogenic (fire, deforestation, etc.) changes. Tracking such changes creates opportunities for timely determination of the engineering parameters of the territory (permeability, security, masking features). Additional possibilities for monitoring the vegetation state provide the use of the PAV in terms of efficiency, availability and reduction of the cost of obtaining information.

The composition and structure of the new component of the environmental monitoring system depends on the tasks set. In particular, the system of remote monitoring of vegetation can be used in rural, forestry, environmental protection, conservation, as well as for obtaining data necessary for the compilation of relevant environmental maps and atlases, which reflect the scale of transformation of natural ecosystems in the conflict zone.

The proposal has undoubted economic significance in terms of providing operational control of military and production processes. The environmental protection effect is to promote the control of the state of biodiversity, the management of recreational and nature conservation objects, and others like that.

The restoration of the integrity and self-regulatory capacity of ecosystems in the conflict zone on the basis of the implementation of these environmental technologies will ensure the normalization of the living conditions of the civilian population and will, among other things, reduce the probability of biological and environmental risks (the emergence of nidus of infectious diseases, outbreaks of pests in agriculture and forestry, desertification, reduction of soil fertility, development of erosion processes, etc.).



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Надійшла до редакції 25.09.2019 р.