Об актуальности токсиколого-гигиенической оценки и рыночной регуляции диетических добавок растительного происхождения, изготовленных из Mitragyna speciosa Korth (сімейство Rubiaceae)

  • Авторы: Н.В. Курдиль, А.Е. Подрушняк, М.Л. Зиновьева, А.И. Петрашенко, У.В. Карпюк, Н.П. Ковальская
  • УДК: 615.099+615.322+613.37
  • DOI: 10.33273/2663-9726-2021-55-2-30-43

Н.В. Курдиль1, А.Е. Подрушняк1, М.Л. Зиновьева1, А.И. Петрашенко1, У.В. Карпюк2, Н.П. Ковальская2

1 ГП «Научный центр превентивной токсикологии, пищевой и химической безопасности имени академика Л.И. Медведя Министерства здравоохранения Украины», г. Киев, Украина
2 Национальный медицинский университет имени А.А.Богомольца, г. Киев, Украина

 

РЕЗЮМЕ. Украина сегодня не регулирует продажу продукции, изготовленной из кратома ‒ Mitragyna speciosa Korth. (из семейства Rubiaceae) и не осуществляет мероприятий по контролю качества и безопасности этого продукта, несмотря на его стремительное распространение по всей территории государства.

Цель. Заключается в обобщении результатов научных исследований, касающихся токсичности альтернативных опиоидов, содержащихся в составе Mitragyna speciosa и комбинированных продуктах, изготовленных на их основе.

Материалы и методы. Использованы отчеты Всемирной организации здравоохранения (WHO), Европейского центра мониторинга наркотиков и наркомании (The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, EMCDDA), Управления ООН по наркотикам и преступности (UNODS Office on Drugs and Crime), научные обзоры и отдельные исследования, посвященные биохимии, токсикологии, судебно-медицинской идентификации веществ, содержащихся в продуктах, изготовленных на основе Mitragyna speciosa за последние 10 лет (Elsevier, PubMed, ToxNet).

Результаты и обсуждение. В последнее время кратом культивируется на разных континентах и попадает на рынок под названием «Кратом», в англоязычных источниках ‒ «Kratom». Листья кратома высушиваются и продаются в форме зеленого порошка, таблеток, капсул, экстрактов и жевательных конфет. В Украине кратом реализуется под сотнями коммерческих названий в сети «Интернет» как «Кратом», «продукт Кратом» «органический чай Кратом», «этнической чай Кратом», «чай Кратом» и др. В составе листьев кратома выявлено более 40 структурно родственных алкалоидов, а также несколько флавоноидов, терпеноидных сапонинов, полифенолов и различных гликозидов. Фармакологические и токсические эффекты кратома для большинства его составляющих изучены недостаточно. Подобно другим диетическим добавкам продукты из кратома должны быть стандартизированными по содержанию алкалоидов, микробному загрязнению, пестицидами, тяжелыми металлами, остаточными растворителями, бензо(а)пиреном, афлатоксинами и др., а также и соответствующими требованиями к маркировке.

Выводы. На рынок Украины должна попадать качественная продукция ‒ стандартизированный экстракт листьев кратома или другая, изготовленная на его основе безопасная продукция. Вместе с тем последние исследования доказывают, что митрагинин, содержащийся в составе кратома, представляет большой интерес для медицинской науки, как модель для разработки новых подходов, касающихся актуальных сфер медицины, в частности для лечения боли и избавления от наркозависимости.

Ключевые слова: Mitragyna speciosa, альтернативные опиоиды, токсичность.

 

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Стаття надійшла до редакції 10.06.2021 / Received June 10, 2021